TAMUctf 2021 Acrylic

This is an easy challenge. There is a flag that can be printed out from somewhere in this binary. Only one problem: There’s a lot of fake flags as well. acrylic

I wanted to use JavRE or another static method to solve this, but the solution that I found with JavRE was false. So this is a dynamic reverse engineering solution.

So the strategy here was to see what happens with memory. Generally there will be a pointer to the string somewhere in memory. Sensible places to put that pointer is a register or the stack.

gdb ./acrylic1 
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Reading symbols from ./acrylic1...
(No debugging symbols found in ./acrylic1)
(gdb) break 0x55555566b8
Function "0x55555566b8" not defined.
Make breakpoint pending on future shared library load? (y or [n]) n
(gdb) break main
Breakpoint 1 at 0x6b1
(gdb) run
Starting program: /home/angr/acrylic1 

Breakpoint 1, 0x00005555554006b1 in main ()
(gdb) si
0x00005555554006b8 in main ()
0x0000555555400510 in [email protected] ()
(gdb) c
look at the code
[Inferior 1 (process 10038) exited normally]

As you can see the program exits without printing the flag. Let’s quickly look at the disassembly. If you’d like to follow along, try JavRE or the disassembler of your choice.

     63a: PUSH RBP
     63b: MOV RBP, RSP ; RBP = RSP; 
     63e: MOV DWORD [RBP-0x8], 0x7b ; '{'
     645: MOV DWORD [RBP-0x4], 0x0 ; 
     64c: JMP 0x68c ; goto 
     64e: MOV EAX, [RBP-0x8] ; EAX = [RBP-0x8]; 
     651: ADD EAX, 0x1 ; EAX += 0x1; 
     654: IMUL EAX, [RBP-0x8] ; EAX *= [RBP-0x8]; 
     658: MOV ECX, EAX ; ECX = EAX; 
     65a: MOV EDX, 0x81020409 ; EDX = 0x81020409; 
     65f: MOV EAX, ECX ; EAX = ECX; 
     661: IMUL EDX ; 
     663: LEA EAX, [RDX+RCX]
     666: SAR EAX, 0x6 ; EAX >>= 0x6; 
     669: MOV EDX, EAX ; EDX = EAX; 
     66b: MOV EAX, ECX ; EAX = ECX; 
     66d: SAR EAX, 0x1f ; EAX >>= 0x1f; 
     670: SUB EDX, EAX ; EDX -= EAX; 
     672: MOV EAX, EDX ; EAX = EDX; 
     674: MOV [RBP-0x8], EAX ; [RBP-0x8] = EAX; 
     677: MOV EDX, [RBP-0x8] ; EDX = [RBP-0x8]; 
     67a: MOV EAX, EDX ; EAX = EDX; 
     67c: SHL EAX, 0x7 ; EAX <<= 0x7; 
     67f: SUB EAX, EDX ; EAX -= EDX; 
     681: SUB ECX, EAX ; ECX -= EAX; 
     683: MOV EAX, ECX ; EAX = ECX; 
     685: MOV [RBP-0x8], EAX ; [RBP-0x8] = EAX; 
     688: ADD DWORD [RBP-0x4], 0x1 ; 
     68c: CMP DWORD [RBP-0x4], 0x7e3 ;
     693: JBE 0x64e ; } while(DWORD [RBP-0x4] < 0x7e3)
     695: MOV EAX, [RBP-0x8] ; EAX = [RBP-0x8]; 
     698: CDQE ; 
     69a: SHL RAX, 0x6 ; RAX <<= 0x6; 
     69e: MOV RDX, RAX ; RDX = RAX; 
     6a1: LEA RAX, [RIP+0x200978]  ; 0x201020 " ; b'gigem{cant_use_strings}'"
     6a8: ADD RAX, RDX ; RAX += RDX; 
     6ab: POP RBP ; POP RBP
     6ac: RET

Using the information I learned from this, I assumed that the function get_flag is worth our time in calling directly. GDB can do this using the jump command. Jumping to a random memory location is absolutely fine in software, don’t let anyone tell you different. Of course in order to find the right address I had to add on 0x0000555555400000, which is the base address that GDB loaded our executable to. Depending on your version of GDB, you might have a different base address. Where do you find your base address? You can find it by taking your main function and subtracting its address 0x6b1 from it.

(gdb) run
Starting program: /home/angr/acrylic1 

Breakpoint 1, 0x00005555554006b1 in main ()
(gdb) si
0x00005555554006b8 in main ()
(gdb) jump 0x000055555540063a
Function "0x000055555540063a" not defined.
(gdb) jump *0x000055555540063a
Continuing at 0x55555540063a.

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x0000000000000000 in ?? ()
(gdb) bt
#0  0x0000000000000000 in ?? ()
#1  0x00007ffff7df77ed in __libc_start_main () from /lib64/libc.so.6
#2  0x000055555540055a in _start ()
(gdb) i r rax
rax            0x555555602620      93824992945696
(gdb) x/s $rax
0x555555602620 <flags+5632>:    "gigem{counteradvise_orbitoides}"

The program crashed because it was not prepared to return at the end of get_flag, but that doesn’t stop us from reverse engineering this program. The first register I checked is the register that is used for result in x86-64, rax.

The solution is gigem{counteradvise_orbitoides}.